International Journal of Libraries and Information Services
Vol 55 (2005), No 4, pages 169-235
ISSN 0024-2667

Table of Contents


Google Scholar: The New Generation of Citation Indexes

Abstract. Google Scholar ( provides a new method of locating potentially relevant articles on a given subject by identifying subsequent articles that cite a previously published article. An important feature of Google Scholar is that researchers can use it to trace interconnections among authors citing articles on the same topic and to determine the frequency with which others cite a specific article, as it has a "cited by" feature. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Scholar for citation analysis and identifies advanced search techniques not well documented by Google Scholar. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Web of Science and Google Scholar for articles in the field of "Webometrics." It makes several suggestions for improving Google Scholar. Finally, it concludes that Google Scholar provides a free alternative or complement to other citation indexes.

Digital Repositories: Not Quite at Your Fingertips

Abstract. The digital repository is a key technology used by today's libraries to collect, organize, archive and make accessible electronic files of different types. This paper argues that while the vision of the role of the digital repository has grown sharper and more articulate, the actual practical outcome has not met the hyperbole. Building blocks continue to be developed, but user access to repositories is still in its early development. There are promising exemplars of this technology, but more effort is needed. Particularly promising is some vendor open source work that may provide the tools needed to open up these digital resources. But fundamental change in how the existence of these repositories and their content is made known to the online user community is needed; traditional metadata access and harvesting is not enough. Infusing the content with an information context may be one way to assure that repositories are a significant part not only of the library of the future but also of the world's information landscape.

Advertising on Library Websites: Comparing library websites in Europe and the USA

Abstract. Although libraries have traditionally been outside of the world of commercial advertising, the current rise in information value, demand and cost creates the possibility for information providers to use Internet advertising on library websites. However, even in a society where the need for advertising is taken for granted, some still question whether libraries and information centers should use it. This article provides an overview of the use of advertising on library websites in Europe and the U.S. Using data collected from a survey of 243 library websites done in 2003, the article discusses the current amount of advertising and the use of self-and commercial advertising on these websites. It also compares the differences between types of libraries and between geographic areas. The major finding of the study is that libraries in Europe and the U.S. both use self- and commercial advertising on their websites; however, libraries tend to use self-advertising more frequently. Further study found that libraries use all popular types of advertising - banners, links, Web pages, information lines - to promote the most predictable types of products on their websites - books, articles, conferences, exhibitions, new services, and databases. The article concludes with suggestions for further research.

Rolling Stock: Library and Information Services for Gypsies and Travellers

Abstract. Gypsies and Travellers have lived in Britain for over 500 years and yet the country's 'original and oldest ethnic minority' (Pateman 2004, 42) remains the least tolerated by the majority. This paper provides a brief cultural analysis based on the Gypsy Traveller way of life and how current policies and service provision create barriers to this culture and tradition. Library and information service requirements are identified in relation to specific needs, based on the issues that directly affect this minority group. An examination of current policies and service provision will also identify existing barriers to enabling access to information. Proposals are made for providing library and information services appropriate to this minority community, in order to break down these barriers, enable access to information pertinent to their needs and tackle the issues that contribute to the social exclusion of the Gypsy Traveller community in Britain.

Constructing the Pillars of a Knowledge Society: The Challenge of Providing Access to ICTs in Rural Mongolia

Abstract. Globalization has resulted in a shift away from the economics of things towards the economics of information, where access to ICTs has reduced the disadvantages of distance and location. Advanced industrialized countries have been at the forefront of this shift and have been able to influence governments to institute policies that have made globalization possible. At the same time, lower income countries have been at a disadvantage in adapting to this new paradigm. Before poor countries can fully benefit from the positive effects of access to ICTs they must first develop a knowledge society. For a society to become a knowledge society and to be part of the economics of information, it must meet four interrelated criteria which we refer to as the four pillars of the knowledge society. These include: ICT and connectivity, usable content, infrastructure and deliverability, and human intellectual capability. In this paper we examine how one developing country, Mongolia, is approaching the challenge of developing a knowledge society. We concentrate on its efforts to construct one of the pillars - ICT and connectivity. The paper looks specifically at the challenges in providing access to ICTs in the vast rural areas of Mongolia where more than half the population still follows a nomadic herding lifestyle. We conclude that despite a positive policy environment for developing ICTs and limited success in extending Internet connectivity into the rural towns, the prospect of integrating these services into the social and business practices of rural communities remains a long way off. Future research needs to go beyond economic and technological factors and focus on the social and cultural implications of incorporating ICTs into traditional societies.

Collaboration across Europe: Experience from Practice

Abstract. This paper explores the experiences of working on a joint European project to develop an online Gateway of website resources in addictions by members of ELISAD, the European Association of Libraries and Information Services on Alcohol and other Drugs. A brief overview is given of the work of ELISAD, and of its sister organisation SALIS. The project is described along with an exploration of the benefits and barriers in working collaboratively. The paper draws on these experiences to highlight the lessons learnt through the Gateway and other activities. Issues considered include: genesis of the project; funding; project management; working styles; language; benefits and barriers; and key observations regarding how to make partnerships work. Although the paper is based upon a joint European project, it includes some reflections upon ELISAD's international links. The paper is written from the personal experiences of the authors.